What is a Framework in Programming?

April 26, 2023 - (Free)

In programming, a Framework is a collection of tools used to create well-organized, dependable programs and systems. In this article, we will define a framework in simple words, discuss its benefits, and provide a number of concrete framework examples.

What is a Framework

When it comes to knowing what a framework in programming is, the dictionary description of a framework as the “basic structure underlying a system” is not far off. The idea of the framework is the same whether the system is a house, a car, a theory, or a mobile app: it offers the support and fundamental “guide” of the structure being developed.

A framework is a tool used in programming that offers pre-made parts or solutions that are customized to hasten the development process. A framework may contain a library, but the Inversion Of Control (IoC) principle serves as its defining characteristic. In conventional programming, reusable code is accessed by a call from the custom code to the library. When required, the framework uses IoC to call on specialized code.

difference between a library and a framework

To develop software and build systems, a framework may comprise helper programs, compilers, code libraries, toolsets, and APIs. Frameworks that are open-source are constantly being upgraded and enhanced.

set of libraries or classes

Why Frameworks are Used in Software Development?

A framework’s role is to support development by offering basic, low-level functionality so that programmers may concentrate on the aspects of the project that give it its own identity.

High-quality, thoroughly tested functionality reduces testing complexity, speeds up programming, and improves software stability. Frameworks help to increase security and provide a base of support thanks to an active user community and continuing code changes.

Frameworks are ultimately utilized to save time and money.

What are the Features of a Good Framework

There are various framework types, some of which are more well-liked than others. The framework a developer chooses is frequently the one with which they are most comfortable, yet that framework may not be the best option. Instead, when choosing the best framework for the project at hand, take into account the following qualities of good frameworks:

Functionality – Select a framework that offers the features required for the project at hand, keeping in mind that every framework has its limitations and refraining from investing in a framework that can perform functions that your project will never require.

Consistency – A framework can help big or distributed teams maintain consistency.

Documentation – Select a framework that offers implementation training and well-documented code.

Active Community – Frameworks can only be as effective as their user base. Select a framework that has a strong track record and a thriving user community.

Challenges of Using a Software Framework

Software frameworks can turn into an expensive crutch for developers who lack proficiency in the language on which the framework is built or who rely too heavily on the framework rather than writing original code, a problem that can result in software bloat and performance problems.

Selecting a framework that is too new or poorly supported has risks and may necessitate expensive re-tooling if it gets out of date. The project may suffer if the restrictions of the framework are not well grasped at the outset.

Types of Programming Frameworks

Whether developing a web application, database, or mobile application, there are numerous distinct programming frameworks, each based upon a programming language and specializing in a certain task. We will discuss numerous programming framework kinds, well-known frameworks for each type, and typical examples in this part.

1. Web Frameworks

Web frameworks (WF) and web application frameworks (WAF) enable the creation of web applications that use web resources, web services, and web APIs. For both the front-end (how the web app looks) and the back-end (how it functions), there are various web frameworks.

client side and server side

2. Front-End Frameworks

The front-end of a website or web app is built using HTML, CSS, and JavaScript components that are provided by front-end frameworks (also known as client-side frameworks).


The Angular Team at Google maintains Angular, an open-source web application framework built on TypeScript. A broad user base has contributed many tools and solutions to the Angular ecosystem. Progressive web apps (PWAs) and highly customized web apps are the perfect applications for Angular.

All 1.X versions of the framework that were formerly JavaScript-based are referred to as AngularJS, while all versions 2 and up are completely rewritten using TypeScript. Angular is used by more than 1.4 million active websites.

Examples of Angular Framework: PayPal, Upwork, Google, and Nike

React JS

React JS (React) is an open-source JavaScript framework for creating user interfaces (UI) and the parts that make them up. React is simple to use, has a robust package ecosystem, and is best suited for feature-rich projects, despite the possibility that its specific focus is a constraint. The most downloaded front-end framework in the last 12 months is React, which is maintained by Facebook and the larger community.

Examples of the ReactJS Framework: Facebook, Instagram, Uber, Netflix, and Airbnb

Vue JS

Another JavaScript-based framework is Vue JS (Vue.js), although it offers more freedom when it comes to using HTML and CSS and the model-view-viewmodel (MVVM) architecture. Vue has a huge support network and is simple to learn.

Ahead of Angular, Vue is currently the second most downloaded framework behind React.

Examples of the Vue JS Framework: Trustpilot, Nintendo, and Behance

3. Back-End Frameworks

In order to aid in development, back-end frameworks (server-side frameworks) offer generic functionalities that can be combined or expanded upon. The platform(s) that will be used for development and the programming language that is selected will determine the framework that is used.

PHP Frameworks (Laravel, CodeIgniter, CakePHP)

Due to its versatility and support for a wide range of platforms, PHP is a well-liked language for back-end development. The three most widely used PHP frameworks are CakePHP, CodeIgniter, and Laravel.

Laravel uses a robust Blade template engine and has expressive and beautiful syntax to speed up code. With one of the smallest footprints and a lightweight framework, CodeIgniter helps developers save time by requiring less coding. The “workhouse” of the three, CakePHP relies on a scaffolding framework and favors convention over configuration to speed up development.

Examples of PHP frameworks include MyRank (Laravel), Casio, Nissan, and 10FastFingers (CakePHP).

Ruby on Rails

A Ruby-based open-source framework is called Ruby on Rails. Ruby is built on the model-view-controller (MVC) architecture and runs on Linux. Large third-party libraries help Ruby on Rails to scale and be safe while also accelerating development.

A little under 17% of the top 10,000 websites use Ruby on Rails.

Examples of the Ruby on Rails Framework: BaseCamp, Kickstarter, Airbnb, and CafePress


Microsoft created the open-source, cross-platform ASP.NET framework. ASP.NET Core is a re-implementation of that framework that functions as a modular web framework. With the programming languages.NET, C#, F#, and Visual Basic, ASP.net offers web apps and services.

Examples of the ASP.Net Framework include Microsoft, StackOverflow, and GoDaddy.


Django is a free, open-source Python framework that promotes efficient, scalable development. The goal of Django is to supply practically everything you require, making it simple to quickly put what you need together from extras. Django is well-known for its interactive features, games, and visual effects.

Examples of the Django Framework: Disqus, Instagram, Spotify, and YouTube

4. Mobile App Development Frameworks

A mobile development framework (also known as a mobile app development framework) aids in the creation of mobile applications that can be cross-platform (common codebase for all platforms), hybrid (native back end shell with web app front end), or native (platform specific). Many mobile app development frameworks, such as Swiftic, Native Scripts, and Ionic, are not covered here.

React Native

Facebook developed the open-source React Native JavaScript UI framework, which is used to create apps for Android, iOS, macOS, tvOS, the web, Windows, and UWP. Instead than focusing on the browser, React Native targets mobile platforms, using the React library for UIs.

Examples of the React Native Framework include Tesla, Facebook, Skype.


Microsoft’s Xamarin is an open-source app development framework that uses C# and.NET. A cross-platform technology called Xamarin lets you utilize a common codebase. By converting UI elements into platform-specific elements at runtime with Xamarin, iOS, Android, and Windows users may have a more natural experience.

Xamarin Framework Examples: BBC Goodfood, Outback, Microsoft Azure, Alaska Airlines


With the release of Flutter 2, Google’s open-source mobile UI framework is now also available for building web and desktop (native) apps. Flutter, which is built on Dart, is regarded as a modern framework since it is easy to use and uses hot reloading to display results immediately.

Examples of the Flutter Framework: Google AdWords, eBay, Microsoft, Adobe, and Amazon

5. Content Management Frameworks

Software called a content management system (CMS) enables users to create, organize, deliver, and alter many types of material, such as blog entries, eBooks, mobile apps, and other online solutions. A content management framework (CMF), often known as a CMS platform, is a device that offers reusable parts for managing web content, combining features of a CMS and a web app framework.

The choice of a CMS framework involves essential concerns like as SEO, personalization, and security in addition to factors like cost, language, and simplicity of use.


A sizable community backs Drupal, a free open-source modular CMS based in PHP. However, compared to some other frameworks, Drupal does demand greater technical expertise.

Because of its well-known extensible taxonomy, Drupal is well-suited for projects with lots of content, lots of community features, and big webmaster teams.

Examples of websites using the Drupal framework include Tesla, InStyle, Mattel, and Arsenal FC.


Kentico is a for-profit framework and platform with additional pre-made choices that is built on the ASP.NET and Microsoft SQL Server technologies. Kentico makes use of straightforward page creation and editing features.

Examples of the Kentico Framework include Skype, NewsMax, Swagger, Gibson, and First American Bank.


Over 42% of all websites utilize WordPress, the most popular free open-source CMS platform.

Because WordPress is so user-friendly, it is perfect for non-technical users creating tiny blogs or for larger brands supporting everything from microsites to substantial eCommerce stores. As long as you select validated, often updated plugins, a variety of plug-ins, themes, and extensions build the framework for a customized, customizable site.

Examples of WordPress framework sites include BBC America, TechCrunch, The New Yorker, Sony Music, and Angry Birds.


Similar to Drupal and WordPress, Joomla is a free open-source CMS that is simple to customize using themes and extensions. For non-technical users, Joomla is simpler to use than Drupal but a little more challenging than WordPress. Third-placed among CMS platforms, Joomla is pre-optimized for SEO and has an excellent security track record.

Examples of Joomla Framework from IKEA to Harvard University to LINUX

6. Data Science Frameworks

The application of statistics, scientific methods, algorithms, or systems to extract knowledge from data falls under the broad category of data science. Data science is currently a flourishing field of study, thanks in part to the possibilities presented by artificial intelligence and machine learning.

Although Python is used for the vast majority of data science projects, other data science frameworks like TensorFlow, PyTorch, Apache Spark, and NumPy are also becoming more popular. In this article, we’ll describe one such framework.


Deep learning neural networks are the foundation of Google’s open-source machine learning (ML) platform TensorFlow. In order to create and distribute ML-powered apps, TensorFlow offers an open source library and tools. Speech recognition, picture recognition, gesture recognition, object localization, translation, optical character recognition, voice synthesis, and text categorization are all examples of on-device deep learning.

Examples of the Tensorflow Framework include Google Translate, FaceNet, Deep Speech from Mozilla, and Google RankBrain.

Common Misconceptions About Programming Frameworks

There may still be certain misperceptions or misunderstandings about programming frameworks, such as:

Framework vs Programming Language

Given that both are used to create software, it is a common mistake to mix up frameworks with programming languages. The best way to tell them apart is by what they are made for. A programming framework, on the other hand, is made specifically for one thing, such as a web app, mobile app, content management system, or data science (as mentioned above).

framework vs programming language

Each programming framework is built on a particular programming language, which provides the framework with its instructions. The framework then serves as the foundation on which you can create software. Software can be created without a framework, but it is always written in a programming language.

Framework VS Library

The terms framework and library are frequently used interchangeably since they both refer to programming tools. A library is merely one tool available within a framework, as stated above in the section “What is a Framework? ”

A framework is the framework or environment in which you construct your software; it gives you access to a number of tools, including libraries, to help you out.

A library is a collection of low-level components that can be used to achieve a certain result. Either a framework can provide access to libraries and call out to the code (inversion of control) or you can use a library directly by calling it from the code.

libraries vs frameworks


In order to create software that is quick, scalable, dependable, and secure for today’s industry, programming frameworks are a crucial tool. Frameworks offer a place to start when tackling common issues, including best practices for programming, and staying up to date with the most recent technological developments, regardless of whether the final product is a website or a mobile app.

Your time to market can be sped up, and the appropriate frameworks can help your growth strategy take off. But how can you tell which frameworks for programming are best for you? Or how can you incorporate frameworks for all of your needs? In order to make sure the frameworks, wireframes, architecture, and prototypes have the greatest possible impact on your brand or company, Net Solutions works directly with you to establish priorities.