What Is DBMS (Database Management System)?

April 26, 2023 - (Free)

The term “Database Management System,” often known as “DBMS,” refers to a computerized tool that aids in the storage of data in a way that makes it simple to read, update, remove, and scale, with the main goal of facilitating correlations, driving analysis, and enabling data-driven workflows.

What Is DBMS

A computerized system for maintaining data is known as a database management system (or DBMS). On such a system, users can perform a variety of operations to manage the database structure and alter the data.

Data was initially set up in many file formats. Since DBMS was a brand-new concept at the time, substantial study was done to help it overcome the drawbacks of the traditional method of data administration. Database management systems (DBMSs) are categorized by data structures or types.

A DBMS frequently modifies the data itself, its format, its field names, the structure of the record, and the structure of the file. It also outlines standards for validating and manipulating this data. Particular data handling concepts are applied as database administration systems develop.

Databases could previously only handle discrete, specially prepared data pieces. A variety of less structured data formats can be handled by today’s advanced systems, which can also connect them in more intricate ways. With the aid of a DBMS, end users can now create, protect, read, update, and remove data in a database.

The link between databases and users or application programs is the database management system. It guarantees that the data is consistently arranged and simple to find. Data is controlled by the DBMS, has a logical structure that is specified by the database schema, and may be accessed, locked, and modified by the database engine.

These three key elements offer concurrency, data security, integrity, and best practices for data management. Common database administration tasks like change management are covered by the DBMS. In addition to documenting and auditing activities carried out within databases and the programs that can access them, the majority of database management systems are in charge of automating rollbacks and restarts.

A centralized view of the data is provided by the DBMS, which allows multiple users to access it from various locations in a controlled manner. A DBMS can limit both the types of data and the ways in which the end user can access the data by providing numerous views of a single database structure. End users and software applications don’t need to understand where the data is physically located or what kind of storage medium it resides in because the DBMS handles all requests.

Logical and physical data can both be accessed independently using DBMS. As a result, neither users nor programs need to be aware of the location of the data’s storage nor be concerned about changes to the data’s physical form. This implies that it can also prevent data from being changed. If the management system’s database is accessed through an application programming interface (API), then the developers won’t need to alter the programs as a result of database updates.

Users of DBMSs can create databases that meet their own needs. The application software and the database are referred to as “DBMS” in this sentence. In addition to enabling database security, it provides a point of communication between the data and the software. In addition, it maintains data consistency in the presence of numerous users.

History of DBMS

  • 1960–Charles Bachman designed the first DBMS system
  • 1970–Codd introduced IBM’S Information Management System (IMS)
  • 1976-Peter Chen coined and defined the Entity-relationship model, also known as the ER model
  • 1980–Relational Model becomes a widely accepted database component
  • 1985-Object-oriented DBMS develops.
  • 1990-Incorporation of object-orientation in relational DBMS.
  • 1991-Microsoft ships MS access, a personal DBMS, and that displaces all other personal DBMS products.
  • 1995-First Internet database applications
  • 1997-XML applied to database processing. Many vendors begin to integrate XML into DBMS products.

Types of Data Models in DBMS

A typical database management system can accommodate the following data models:

1. Hierarchical Model

Data is collected in a tree-like format in a database with a hierarchical structure. This model represents some real-world links, such as cooking recipes, website sitemaps, and so on. The following are the properties of a hierarchical model:

  • One-to-many relationship: The data organization, which resembles a tree, reflects the one-to-many link between the datatypes.
  • Parent-child relationship: Although a parent node might have multiple child nodes, each child node has a parent node.
  • Deletion problem: When a parent node is removed, all child nodes are removed as well.
  • Pointers: Pointers are used to traverse between stored data and connect parent and child nodes.

2. Relational Model

The relational model is one of the most widely used data models. This model’s data is stored as a two-dimensional table. Data storage is organized into rows and columns. Tables are the primary building blocks of a relational model. Tables are also referred to as relations in the relational paradigm. The following are the major characteristics of the relational model:

  • Tuples: The rows of the table are referred to as tuples. A row contains all of the information about any object instance.
  • Attribute or field: An attribute is the property that defines a table or relation. The values of the attribute should be from the same domain.

3. Object-Oriented Model

A database, according to this paradigm, is a collection of objects, or reusable software components, with linked features and procedures. There are several types of object-oriented databases, including:

  • Multimedia databases feature images and other material kinds that cannot be stored in a relational database.
  • A hypertext database allows any object to link to any other object.

Although it aids in the organization of large amounts of data, it is not the ideal option for numerical analysis. The most prevalent post-relational database paradigm, object-oriented, incorporates tables without being limited to them. These kind of systems are also known as hybrid database designs.

4. Network Model

The network model extends the hierarchical paradigm by allowing many-to-many links between connected records, implying numerous parent records. The model is created utilizing mathematical set theory and sets of related records. A network model must have the following characteristics:

  • Increased relationship fusion capacity: The more relationships in this model, the more related the data.
  • Several paths: Due to the increased number of relationships, there may be more than one path to the same record. This allows for rapid and easy data access.
  • The circular linked list: is used to conduct operations on the network model.

5. Float Data Model

The float data model consists of a single two-dimensional array of data components. The database is represented simply in this model as a table with rows and columns. To access any data, the computer must read the entire table. As a result, the modes are slow and inefficient.

This strategy is effective only for small data sets because the computer needs to read the entire flat file into memory in order to access or modify the data. This architecture is inefficient since it can only hold a small amount of data and requires a full table search to retrieve any data.

6. Entity-Relationship (ER) Model

In this database architecture, relationships are created by classifying the object of interest as an entity and its properties as attributes. These relationships are then used to link different entities together. ER models are created to depict relationships in a way that is clear to all parties involved.

The construction of databases that can subsequently be converted into relational model tables is made possible by this architecture. Simply expressed, the logical structure of the database is displayed using an ER diagram. The ER model can serve as a blueprint for developing the database in the future since it develops a conceptual grasp of the data.

7. Semi-Structured Data Model

It is impossible to distinguish between data and schema in the semi-structured data model since certain entities may be missing one or more characteristics. The semi-structured data model is a generalized form of the relational model that permits flexible data representation. Other entities, on the other hand, might contain extra traits that make altering the database’s schema easier.

In this paradigm, certain entities might be missing certain characteristics while others might have an additional quality. Flexible data storage is possible with this strategy. Additionally, it imparts freedom-related attributes. It can be used to describe the relationships between databases with various schemas.

ACID Properties in DBMS

The data management should remain integrated even when a database is changed. This is so that the entire data set won’t be affected or corrupted if the integrity of the data is compromised. The contents of a database can be viewed and changed as part of a single logical work unit called a transaction.

ACID Properties in DBMS

To access the data in these transactions, read and write operations are used. Database transactions must take into account a set of properties known as the ACID (Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, and Durability) qualities to assure consistency. Let’s examine them in greater detail.

1. Atomicity

A circumstance known as atomicity is one in which the entire transaction either occurs all at once or not at all. As a result, there is no halfway point. A transaction cannot ever be conducted in part. It is possible to think of each transaction as a discrete entity that either executes completely or not at all. These two operations are present here:

  • Commit: If a transaction commits, we are aware of the modifications that were done. The “All or nothing rule” can therefore also be referred to as atomicity.
  • Abort: In the event that a transaction is unsuccessful, we won’t be able to observe any database changes that were made.

2. Consistency

In order for any specific database to be consistent both before and after a transaction, we must fulfill the integrity requirements. It is a reference to the precision of a database. Since data integrity must be upheld in DBMS, all database changes must always be preserved. Data consistency before and after a transaction is ensured by data integrity, which is essential in transactions. The data should always be correct.

3. Isolation

With isolation enabled, multiple transactions may occur simultaneously, preventing inconsistent database states. There is an autonomous or uninvolved transaction. Any modifications made to that transaction won’t ever be accessible to other transactions until this particular change has been committed or stored in memory.

The benefit of isolation ensures that when we execute the transactions concurrently, the state that is created will be the same as the state that was executed serially and in a specific order. Transactions happen independently and without interruption. The interim state of a transaction is hidden from other transactions.

4. Durability

In DBMS, the term “durability” refers to the promise that data will always stay in the database once an action is finished. The data must be reliable enough to function even in the event of a system failure or crash. The recovery manager is now in responsibility of making sure the database is robust if it vanishes, though.

Every time we make a modification to the settings, we must use the COMMIT command to save it. Once a transaction has finished running, the durability feature states that the database updates and modifications are written to and saved on the disk.

DBMS Examples

You can store, organize, and analyze data using a variety of database management systems, or DBMS, software. Among the best choices are:

1. Microsoft Access

Access, a graphical user interface, software development tools, and the relational Microsoft Jet Database Engine are all components of Microsoft’s DBMS. It is easy because of the graphical user interface. It is a component of the Microsoft Office application suite in the professional and above editions.

The benefits of MS Access include the speed and convenience with which a relational database management system can be quickly and easily created, the simplicity with which data from many sources can be imported, and the ease with which it can be customized to meet both individual and corporate needs. MS Access’ disadvantage is that it only functions well for small and medium-sized businesses.

2. Oracle Database

The organization has now made four attempts to create a relational database management system. Larger volumes of data can be stored on Oracle databases, especially by large businesses. It is also flexible and advantageous for locking and shared structured query language (SQL). Users have rapid access to data items thanks to the relational database architecture of the system.

It develops a potent synchronous data processing engine with memory data processing capabilities. Oracle databases shouldn’t be used right immediately. It is preferable to have certified Oracle DB engineers manage it. If you intend to use Oracle DB, you might want to consider employing experienced experts.

3. Amazon RDS

Amazon Web Services (AWS) provides the managed SQL database service known as Amazon Relational Database Service (RDS). For the storage and structuring of data, Amazon RDS offers a number of database engines. It also enables maintenance tasks for relational databases, such as data migration, backup, recovery, and patching. Setting up, running, and scaling a relational database in the cloud is simple with Amazon RDS.

It provides economical and expandable capacity while automating time-consuming administration tasks including hardware provisioning, database setup, patching, and backups. By giving your applications the necessary responsiveness, high availability, security, and compatibility, you have more time to focus on them.


IBM Db2, which provides developers, DBAs, and enterprise architects with the capabilities they need to carry out real-time analytics and low-latency transactions for even the most demanding workloads, was built by the best database experts in the world. For systems that run the world, from microservices to AI workloads, Db2 is the tried-and-true hybrid database that provides extreme availability, advanced integrated security, seamless scalability, and intelligent automation.

The majority of the Db2 family is now made available on the IBM Cloud Pak for Data platform, either as an add-on or an integrated data source service, making nearly all of your data accessible across hybrid cloud or multi-cloud setups to fuel your AI applications.

5. MySQL

This is a client-server open-source relational database management system (RDBMS); to put it simply, open source refers to software that is available for modification and free use.

Let’s quickly go over client-server. Devices that install and use RDBMS software are known as clients. When they need access to data, they create a connection to the RDBMS server. The “client-server” element is just that: a component. MySQL is distinguished by its simple syntax and moderately complex feature set. MySQL is even thought of by developers as a database with human-like language. Scalability is a flaw in MySQL that is inherent in its code and was not taken into account while it was being built.

6. PostgreSQL

database management system available for free PostgreSQL was created with businesses in mind. It supports relational and non-relational queries in both SQL and JSON for flexibility and SQL compliance. An efficient open source object-relational database system is PostgreSQL. Because of its tried-and-true architecture, it has been actively developed for more than 15 years and has a strong reputation for reliability, data integrity, and correctness.

PostgreSQL is supported by all widely used operating systems, including Linux, UNIX, and Windows. Only expensive commercial databases like Oracle and SQL Server support advanced data types and performance-enhancing technologies; PostgreSQL includes these features by default. It is also known as Postgres.

7. Apache Cassandra

Apache Cassandra is a distributed database that is extremely scalable and highly functional. It has no single point of failure and can handle enormous volumes of data across many commodity machines. It is a member of the NoSQL database group. One advantage of Apache Cassandra is its ability to manage structured, semi-structured, and unstructured data.

Cassandra was initially developed by Facebook and released to the public in 2008 before turning into one of the top-level Apache projects in 2010. The ability of major corporations to handle massive quantities is particularly advantageous. As a result, it is currently being used by numerous large firms, including Apple, Facebook, and Instagram.

8. MongoDB

An all-purpose data storage is MongoDB. This has a number of advantages over other kinds of databases. Data from MongoDB is mapped to a flexible schema. If the specifications of your application change, you can rapidly alter how your data is stored. You can quickly develop new ideas because of this.

MongoDB also provides schema validation, so you can tighten up your schema as much or as little as you like. It can therefore handle whatever data structuring requirements you may have, either today or in the future. By using references and operations like $lookup that are tailored to diverse needs, MongoDB users can aggregate documents.

Application of DBMS

The most common database system applications are listed below:

Sector Use of DBMS
Banking For customer information, account activities, payments, deposits, loans, etc.
Airlines For reservations and schedule information.
Universities For student information, course registrations, colleges, and grades.
Telecommunication It helps to keep call records, monthly bills, maintain balances, etc.
Finance For storing information about stock, sales, and purchases of financial instruments like stocks and bonds.
Sales Use for storing customer, product & sales information.
Manufacturing It is used to manage the supply chain and track the production of items. Inventories status in warehouses.
HR Management For information about employees, salaries, payroll, deduction, generation of paychecks, etc.

Advantages of DBMS

Using a DBMS to manage and store data has a lot of advantages.

1. Data Redundancy

When the same data is stored repeatedly in various locations, data redundancy may result. Data redundancy is eliminated when using a DBMS since data is created in a centralized location as opposed to by individual users for each application.

2. Data Searching

It is quite simple to search for and retrieve data using a DBMS system. To search for various sorts of information simultaneously, you can use short queries rather to creating separate programs for each data search.

3. Data Inconsistency

Because there is just one data store, a DBMS can eliminate data inconsistency. A typical file system prevents changes made in one program from being replicated in other apps that share the same characteristics. A DBMS allows for the data to be defined just once and accessible by several users.

4. Data Access

A database management system (DBMS) offers quick access to specific data in a lot less time than a conventional file-based system would need. A DBMS enables you to create short queries that will quickly retrieve the data you require.

5. Data Backup

Because a DBMS handles this automatically, there is no need for individual users to routinely and manually backup their data. The DBMS will restore the data to its previous state in the event of a server crash.

6. Eliminates Data Loss

Data loss is practically never an issue because data security and storage are so inexpensive. It is much simpler to perform a full recovery of data in the case of a failure because database systems maintain backups of all of your data.

7. Data Atomicity

All database actions must take place in an atomic transaction, or none of them will. If a transaction is only partially finished, it undoes the preceding operations because the DBMS is responsible for saving a complete transaction in the database. In other words, if a consumer makes an online purchase but the transaction fails for some reason, they either are not charged for the purchase or their money is returned to them within a short period of time.

8. Low Maintenance Costs

A DBMS setup can be expensive, but once it’s up and running, upkeep is very inexpensive.

9. Data Sharing

Users may securely share data with numerous users or apps thanks to DBMSs, which is one of its main advantages. To guarantee data consistency, data is kept in a single primary place and is protected by locking technology to prevent simultaneous changes by two persons.

10. Decision Making

Management is able to make better, more educated business decisions that will affect the expansion of the entire firm since a DBMS makes data sharing easier for users and because the data is consistent across the organization.

11. Data Security

Utilizing a DMBS guarantees that only individuals with permission to view particular data can do so. It enables you to specify access privileges, preventing users from having access to all data while yet granting them access to the data that is necessary for their roles and responsibilities. Data is less vulnerable to problems like data leaks, misuse of corporate data, or identity theft because each user has a different set of access rights.

12. Data Integration

To provide users with a unified view of the information they require, data integration is the act of merging data that resides in many locations.

Disadvantage of DBMS

  • DBMS may provide many benefits, but it also has certain drawbacks.
  • Because DBMS hardware and software are relatively expensive, your organization’s budget grows.
  • Because most database management systems are sophisticated, users must be trained on how to utilize them.
  • In certain businesses, all information is combined into a single database that may become corrupted or suffer electrical harm.
  • Data loss can occur when numerous people are using the same program simultaneously.
  • DBMS is unable to carry out complex calculations.

When Not to Use a DBMS System?

Even if DBMS systems are helpful, they are not appropriate for the following particular tasks:

Not advised if you lack the resources or the technical know-how to run a DBMS. Excel, CSV, and flat files may work well in certain circumstances.


Overall, a DBMS is a powerful tool for managing data and can help organizations improve their efficiency, productivity, and decision-making capabilities.